Researchers at Texas A&M University are taking a traditional manufacturing tool—cutting metal—and developing a more accessible way to understand the behavior of metals under extreme conditions.
Cutting metal—scraping a thin layer of material from a metal surface with a sharp knife (not like we scrape butter)—may not be the first thing that comes to mind when studying materials. properties. However, Dr. Dinakar Sagapuram and Hrayer Aprahamian, assistant professors in the Wm Michael Barnes ’64 Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, wanted to see if the process could predict material behavior under different deformation conditions. Their team included Harshit Chawla, a doctoral student in industrial and systems engineering, and Dr. Shwetabh Yadav, an assistant professor at the Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad.
“Knowledge of how materials deform and fail under harsh mechanical conditions is essential for the study and development of various technological applications, including manufacturing processes, crash testing of vehicle and impact testing for defense-related applications,” Chawla said.
Because the cutting process involves local shearing or deformation of metal to extreme levels under high rates, the team hypothesized that it could provide fundamental information on the material’s strength, resistance to plastic deformation or irreversible change in form.
“The research opens up a new and interesting application for metal cutting as a ‘property test’ that materials scientists and physicists can use to test their theories,” Sagapuram said. “The number of mathematical theories of metal plasticity under high strain rates far exceeds the experimental data. Therefore, property information obtained using metal cutting can test which theories are valid and which are not.”
The team used a high-speed camera to observe how metals break and shear when they encounter a sharp cutting tool and then used this information to determine their basic property information. A significant challenge, however, lies in extracting intrinsic material properties from visual high-speed imaging data. While metal cutting was not Aprahamian’s area of expertise, the collaboration with Sagapuram created new ideas and techniques in figures.
“An important aspect of this research is to establish mathematical optimization techniques that guarantee global optimality, thus achieving the best solution,” said Aprahamian. “Otherwise, you can get solutions that seem satisfactory, but they don’t accurately describe the material.”
The advantages of cutting metal in the test methods used today are that they are simple and can produce a variety of conditions that are difficult to achieve using conventional tests but are important from the standpoint of various engineering applications.
“We are excited about the prospect of using cutting as a convenient method to determine material properties that are currently only obtained with considerable difficulty,” said Sagapuram. “Because it’s so simple, in principle, anyone with access to a machine shop can now obtain material data without sophisticated testing capabilities.”
The team recently published their work in the Proceedings of the Royal Society A journal, with another paper on numerical techniques in the works. A grant from the National Science Foundation supported the research.
Sagapuram said the team recently began collaborating with Los Alamos National Laboratory, supported by the Texas A&M University System National Laboratories Office, to compare their data with more established material dynamic strength testing platforms available at lab site These studies will contribute to the validation of the method and verify if different experiments on the same metal provide consistent data.
Aprahamian said their work to develop mathematical techniques has potential applications outside of material characterization.
“My group has extended some of these algorithms and techniques to the field of health care, where we use world-class optimization tools to develop better screening strategies,” Aprahamian said. “This can be used to prevent future outbreaks and improve screening for infectious diseases in the population.”
Chawla said that research has allowed him to work in a field that has interested him for years.
“It is interesting to study the mechanics of the metal cutting process using new experimental methods,” Chawla said. “To closely observe material deformation during cutting, especially at the microscopic level at high frame rates, is fascinating.”
Determination of large-strain metal plasticity parameters using in-situ measurements of plastic flow past a wedge, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences (2023). DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2023.0061. royalsocietypublishing.org/doi … .1098/rspa.2023.0061
Provided by Texas A&M University
Citation: Staying sharp: Researchers turn to an everyday shop tool to study how materials behave (2023, July 19) retrieved 19 July 2023 from https://phys.org/ news/2023-07-staying-sharp-everyday-tool-materials .html
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